Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Sports Injury Prevention - Google книги
Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Sorry, the book that you are looking for is not available right now. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! List of contributors, vi Forewords by the IOC, vii Preface, ix Acknowledgements, x 1 A brief history of strength training and basic principles and concepts, 1 Andrew C.
Newton 2 Training-specific characteristics of neuromuscular performance, 20 Keijo Hakkinen 3 Developing a strength training workout, 37 William J.
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Kraemer 4 Periodization of training, 55 Steven J. Kraemer 7 Medical aspects and administrative concerns in strength training, William J. Kraemer and Joseph Dziados Index, Theoretically, using the periodisation concept, peak performance occurs in a controlled way, as a result of the summation of the particular adaptations provided by each training phase mesocycles In fact, several studies have reported that different periodisation regimens are superior to non-periodised models for improving performance in elite athletes 5,6.
However, from a practical point of view, this research is limited by the fact that the authors — throughout the experimental period — only investigated the changes in physical capacities i. In addition, a further dissimilarity has been identified between peak performance and performance variation obtained by high-level sprinters who train following an identical periodised training regimen , targeting the same main events in the same competitive season unpublished data Figure 2. The traditional periodisation model assumes that a relatively prolonged period of basic training general preparation is a prerequisite to a more specific phase special preparation During general preparation, strength and conditioning coaches aim to improve cardiorespiratory endurance and strength-endurance, even in athletes competing in power-speed sports disciplines sprint and long jump events.
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This is surprising, as it has been known since the early s that high volumes of endurance training are capable of attenuating the chronic gains in muscle strength and power, principally in highly trained subjects Although the molecular aspects of this interference effect have been extensively debated in sport sciences and still need to be fully elucidated, it seems that the multiple signaling responses induced by endurance training are capable of inhibiting protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy, which is possibly related to the antagonism between the adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase AMPK and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 mTORC1 signaling cascades Conversely, there are extensive studies showing that training using heavy-loads i.
In effect, it appears that the parametric relationship between force and velocity i. Some studies have even reported significant decreases in power-speed related motor tasks i. The question that remains to be answered, is whether these unwanted adaptations i. The same holds true for specific endurance adaptations. Surprisingly, for this selected group of non-elite but highly-trained athletes, the management of levels of fatigue at non-detrimental levels was more effective in provoking performance improvements. Therefore, the delayed training effect is not completely supported by the scientific literature and its use as a tool to improve actual results is highly controversial, as its outcomes are very unpredictable Essentially, we can state that so-called basic training may potentially be a period of concurrent training stimulus.
The predicted effects high endurance level and impaired strength-power characteristics are detrimental to the desired training targets in the subsequent seasonal phases, especially due to the absence of solid scientific evidence regarding the delayed training effect and its purported benefits.
Strength and conditioning coaches should ask themselves whether basic training is a real basis for competitive performance in their respective sports disciplines, or whether it is a loss of precious time to athletes , sometimes causing malfunction of the systems mobilised during actual performance. For instance, in endurance sports, athletes appear to benefit from performing high volumes of low-intensity training i. Furthermore, the role played by prolonged periods of basic training on muscle-tendon tissues and injury prevention 37,38,40 cannot be ignored.
However, it is likely that these positive adaptations in muscles and tendons may also be obtained by typical strength power exercises, which can be directly implemented during the course of the season 42, On the other hand, the counterproductive effects of prolonged basic preparation phases in team sports were recently evidenced by the impairments in the speed capacity presented by elite athletes during their pre-season training 44,45 , with faster players at baseline presenting higher levels of deterioration in the maximum sprinting performance in comparison with their slower peers In this regard, it is important to note that sprinting speed is a key component of match performance in many team sports More importantly, the accumulated effects of several years of heavy and long-lasting concurrent training each season might have a role in the performance ceiling effect experienced by most athletes during their careers.
It is possible that the ability to sustain progress in sporting capability over years will benefit from training strategies that are less aggressive and targeted i. The periodisation structure is quite complicated and is centred on a series of rigid and inflexible concepts which emphasise the necessity to progress within the same training cycle from basic to particular aspects of the specific sports performance 8, Indeed, for most sports disciplines, the current congested competition and training schedules 44,47 make it extremely difficult for strength and conditioning coaches to adopt this classic and theoretical method.
In fact, this training model showed to be more effective than the traditional periodisation in achieving positive adaptations in certain aspects related to specific sports performance 51, Therefore, considering the technical hitches that arise from the problematic combination of managing training schedules and controlling peak performance, seeking simpler and more effective methods than the segmented programmes of periodisation is highly recommended to train professional athletes, who frequently have to maintain their peak or optimal performance.
For instance, Loturco et al 54 found that simple and timesaving vertical and horizontal jump tests are strongly associated with competitive performance in the metre sprint. Furthermore, loaded and unloaded jump tests have been extensively associated with sport-specific motor skills such as punching acceleration in karate 56 , punching impact in boxing 57 , swimming speed in sprint swimmers 58 and change-of-direction ability in rugby players From an applied perspective, coaches could use these rapid field measurements to increase or decrease training volume and intensity, in individual or team sports according to the performance presented by a given subject during a particular test.
Moreover, since actual athlete performance may be directly related to a determined capability e. Certainly, further studies should be carried out to identify other functional assessments or simple physiological measures to predict sports performance in a wide range of sports disciplines It is suggested that sports practitioners should interpret these training outcomes in the context of the loads applied to the athletes. In this sense, heart rate-derived training impulses 63 and session rating of perceived exertion 64 methods have been spread among athletes and teams.
The observation of these useful concepts may contribute greatly to the development of better and more applied strategies for training elite athletes. In traditional modes of strength training, loading intensity is commonly based on different percentages of one repetition maximum 1RM In fact, previous studies have already reported that distinct temporal organisations of the strength-power exercises 69,70 promote equivalent enhancements in numerous neuromechanical capacities such as maximum strength, muscle power and sprinting speed.
In addition and perhaps more importantly, the determination of 1RM values is very time consuming and it has been suggested that this measurement may expose those being assessed to increased risk of injury With these limitations in mind, coaches and sport scientists have been trying to find more practical and effective methods to train and optimise the neuromuscular abilities of their athletes. Importantly, in a recent study, it was observed that this training regime is superior to a classic strength training model in increasing the neuromuscular performance of top-level soccer players throughout an in-season training period Of note, for training at this optimum zone i.
In addition, it has been reported that the power outputs collected at these zones — and even the magnitude of the optimum power loads — are highly associated with performance in a wide range of sport-specific movements 57,60,61, , which possibly increases the importance of training in these zones. However, since this load varies according to the exercise performed e.
Moreover, detection of optimal loads depends on the specific kinematic devices accelerometers or linear encoders , which could be a problem for practical field measurements. Indeed, it is clear that the optimum power zone method calls for effectiveness trials 81 to further confirm its usefulness in various sports settings, especially application in the long-term and in athletes of different ages and competition levels. Even with these limitations, the optimum power zone may be an applied and efficient alternative to traditional modes of strength training periodisation. Tapering is probably one of the few constructs in the periodisation methodology which is widely supported in the literature Importantly, similar effects are also observed both during active and complete training cessation during the transition phases i.
It is very plausible that improved sport form after periods of reduced training take place because the concurrent and sometimes detrimental effects of general non-specific and specific fatiguing training are partially withdrawn. It is evident that this article will not resolve the controversies and debates which surround the conceptual basis of training periodisation. However, it highlights a clear need to develop more applied, effective and realistic methods of training and developing professional athletes, who compete several times per year and need to maintain near peak performance throughout the macrocycle.
From a practical standpoint, monitoring athletes using tests which best correlate to actual sports performance is much more important than following theoretical concepts, which subjectively state that form might be predictable and controlled. With this simple and applied thought, strength and conditioning coaches may select better ways to control fluctuations in the competitiveness of individuals and teams, besides the already well-established variations in traditional training compo-nents i. Further studies are necessary to develop more effective and applied methods to train and develop high-level athletes for long-term success, in order to better enhance their form, according to their specific athletic requirements.
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Handbook of Strength Training for Sports : Olympic Handbook of Sports Medicine
Periodisation training from ancient precursors to structured block models. Kinesiology ; S3-S9. Scientific report. Leningrad: Research Institute for Physical Culture Matveyev LP. Moscow: Fizkultura i Sport Verkhoshansky Y. Fleck SJ. J Hum Kinet ; 29A Physiological changes with periodised resistance training in women tennis players.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; Bartonietz K, Larsen B. General and event-specific considerations in peaking for the main competition. New Studies in Athletics ; Bompa TO. Harre D. Berlin: Sportverlag Modern procedures for the construction of macrocycles Modern Athlete and Coach. Modern Athlete and Coach ; About the construction of training.
Periodisation Strategies. Strength Cond J ; Issurin VB. New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training periodisation. Sports Med ; Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application.
Strength Training for Sport: Olympic Handbook of Sports Medicine / Edition 1
Eur J Appl Physiol ; Dudley GA, Djamil R. Incompatibility of endurance- and strength-training modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol ; Hickson RC. Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables. Hawley JA. Molecular responses to strength and endurance training: are they incompatible? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ;
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