Allgaier noted, however, that although chemtrails videos received a lot of views, it does not mean the people watching them believed what they were told. He said it was important to examine the algorithms that decide which videos to show people, but did not suggest YouTube should remove climate denial material. Allgaier suggested more scientists should start taking YouTube seriously as a platform for sharing information.
Most YouTube climate change videos 'oppose the consensus view'
They should speak out publicly about their research and be transparent in order to keep established trustful relationships with citizens and society. The research was published in the journal Frontiers in Communication. To do so, he chose 10 search terms: Chemtrails Climate Climate change Climate engineering Climate hacking Climate manipulation Climate modification Climate science Geoengineering Global warming The videos were then assessed to judge how closely they adhered to the scientific consensus, as represented by the findings of reports by UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC from onwards.
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In , the National Council for Science and the Environment reported that the acceleration of climate change is already faster than the IPCC projected only a year earlier. How we deal with the rapid environmental changes, and the human forces that are driving these changes, will be among the defining issues of our generation.
the climate solutions consensus what we know and what to do about it Manual
Climate Solutions Consensus presents an agenda for America. It is the first major consensus statement by the nation s leading scientists, and it provides specific recommendations for federal policies, for state and local governments, for businesses, and for colleges and universities that are preparing future generations who will be dealing with a radically changed climate. The book draws upon the recommendations developed by more than scientists, educators and decision makers who participated in the National Council for Science and the Environment s 8th National Conference on Science, Policy and the Environment.
After presenting a lucid narrative of the science behind climate change and its solutions, Climate Solutions Consensus presents 35 practical, results-oriented approaches for minimizing climate change and its impacts. It clearly spells out options for technological, societal, and policy actions. And it deals head-on with controversial topics, including nuclear energy, ocean fertilization and atmospheric geo-engineering.
One of the book s key conclusions is that climate solutions are about much more than energy sources. They involve re-examining everything people do with an eye toward minimizing climate impacts.
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It was eventually signed by nations. Therefore, it is the law of the land, to which all the nations that signed it are bound, including the United States. That does not mean all nations follow the letter or even the spirit of the law they have signed. Specifically, UNFCCC requires all signing nations to achieve "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. How well nations have been doing in working toward this goal is a different story.
The Framework treaty was intended as a beginning step "to consider what can be done to reduce global warming and to cope with whatever temperature increases are inevitable. A second important step occurred in , with the adoption in Kyoto, Japan, of the text of the Protocol to the Framework.
This addition to the original treaty—known as the Kyoto Protocol—contains more powerful and legally binding measures.
Whereas the Framework treaty encouraged industrialized nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Kyoto Protocol required them to do so, with specific emission targets and compliance dates. By , only 84 nations had ratified the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force in for those early adopters. Nonetheless, the UN left the acceptance book open at its New York headquarters. By mid, a total of nations and one regional economic regime, the European Economic Community EEC , had ratified or accepted the lowered-emission targets of the Kyoto Protocol.
Only one significant emitter of greenhouse gases, the United States, refused for years to ratify, accept, adopt, or even acknowledge the Kyoto Protocol.
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This lack of action by the United States has been particularly glaring. Many of the mechanisms by which nations could meet their Kyoto targets specifically included market-based approaches that the United States favored during the drafting of the protocol. For example, under the Kyoto Protocol treaty, each country must meet its targets primarily through national measures, which reduce emissions within that nation.
Nations are also allowed to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms: 1 emissions trading that allows any country to establish a carbon market for emitters within the country, 2 the Clean Development Mechanism that allows any country to get credit for implementing reductions in a developing nation, and 3 joint implementation that allows any country to get credit for a joint project in a different nation.
After some early bumps, EU ETS developed into an effective tool to track and reduce all greenhouse gas emissions. The EU ETS is mandatory for 10, European installations that spew greenhouse gas emissions, from factories to power plants.
The Climate Solutions Consensus
Even though the US federal government has avoided ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, there is strong movement within the United States that may provide models for a national effort. RGGI is a cooperative effort to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, a gas that will be discussed further in Chapter 3. This interstate effort may in turn serve as a model for a larger American federal greenhouse gas market, much as the initial UK emission market served as a precursor to the larger EU scheme.
As the United States considers action on global climate change, we should be guided by the sobering realization that international consensus on this topic has been steadily mounting. The Panel issued a Third Assessment Report in , which stated there is newer and stronger evidence that most of the warming of the past 50 years is attributable to human activities.
The Panel's Fourth Assessment Report in , Climate Change , found unequivocal evidence for human causes in climate disruption. In table 1. Public opinion has also shifted. Gore's film used much of the same science that the Panel's report did to explain the global climate disruption that humans are causing.
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